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放射線曝露時の対応に関するWHOのガイドライン

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2011年03月19日(Sat) 13:31

福島原発事故に関連して放射線曝露時の対応ガイドライン(WHO)がでています。
すぐには和訳できませんが、参考にして下さい。

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WHO Issues Guidelines on Radiation Exposure

GENEVA (Reuters) Mar 17 - In the wake of Japan's nuclear crisis,
the World Health Organization (WHO) issued fresh guidelines on how
to minimize exposure to radiation that can cause cancers,
especially in children and young adults.

The United Nations agency said measures taken by Japan so far meet
its public health recommendations, including evacuating people
within 20 km of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant and asking
those within 30 km to stay indoors.

There was no indication of food safety risks due to imports of food
products from Japan. It was also unlikely food production or harvesting
in the affected area was taking place, but it said crops and livestock
in the area should be protected.

Following is a list of the main WHO recommendations:(主要な勧告)

- The main radionuclides released in a nuclear power plant accident
are radioactive cesium and radioactive iodine. "Members of the public
may be exposed directly to such radionuclides in the suspended air
or if food and drink are contaminated by such materials," the WHO said.
放射性セシウムと放射性ヨードの飛散が問題

- If radioactive iodine is inhaled or swallowed, it will concentrate
in the thyroid and increase the risk of thyroid cancer. This risk
can be lowered by taking potassium iodide pills which saturate
the thyroid gland and help prevent the uptake of the radioactive material.
"When given before or shortly after exposure, this step can reduce
the risk of cancer in the long term," it said. National authorities
are best placed to determine if it is warranted to take the tablets.
放射性ヨードによる健康障害は、それを吸い込んだときに甲状腺がんのリスクが高まる。
防ぐには安定ヨウ素剤を曝露の直前、直後に飲むこと

- If a dose of radiation exceeds a certain threshold level, then it
can produce skin redness, hair loss, radiation burns and acute radiation
syndrome. Due to their work, rescuers and nuclear power plant workers
may be exposed to higher radiation doses than the general population.

- Exposure to radiation can increase the risk of cancer. Among the survivors
in Japan of U.S. atomic bombs dropped in August 1945, the risk of
leukemia increased a few years after radiation exposure, while the risks
of other cancers increased more than 10 years after the exposure.

- The risk of thyroid cancer following radiation exposure is higher
in children and young adults.
甲状腺がんのリスクは小児と若年者に高い

- If warranted, steps such as restricting the consumption of vegetables
and dairy products produced in the vicinity of the power plant can also reduce exposure.

- "If you are coming indoors after radiation exposure, undress in the doorway
to avoid further contamination in your home or shelter. Remove clothing
and shoes and place them in a plastic bag. Seal the bag and place it
in a safe location, away from living areas, children, and pets."

- "Shower or bathe with warm, not scalding hot, water and soap. Notify
authorities that you may have contaminated clothing and personal belongings
to be handled appropriately and disposed of according to accepted national
procedures," the WHO said.

- "If you are advised to stay indoors, you should find the safest room
in your house or office building that has no windows or doors. Ventilation
systems, such as heating and cooling systems, should be shut down," the agency said.

- Foods can be contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of
a nuclear or radiological emergency. "The surface of foods like fruits
and vegetables or animal feed can become radioactive by deposit of radioactive
materials falling on it from the air or through rain water."

- Over time, radioactivity can also build up within food, as radionuclides
are transferred through soil into crops or animals or into rivers, lakes
and the sea where fish and shellfish could take up the radionuclides.

- "Radioactivity cannot contaminate food that is packaged; for example,
tinned or plastic-wrapped food is protected from radioactivity as long
as the food is sealed," the WHO said.

- In the early stages of an emergency, and if it is safe to do so, vegetables
and animal fodder can be protected with plastic sheets or tarpaulins.

- "Bring livestock in from pasture; move animals into a shed or barn.

- Harvest any ripe crops and place under cover," it said.

- Avoid consumption of locally produced milk or vegetables, avoid
slaughtering animals and avoid fishing, hunting or gathering mushrooms
or other forest foods.

Reuters Health Information © 2011


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