喫煙が禁止されるだけではなく、喫煙者自身を職場が受け入れなくなってきている

このエントリーをはてなブックマークに追加

2012年01月25日(Wed) 10:01 by drharasho

日本でも喫煙者を雇用しない企業が出始めていますが、
タバコ規制の先進国米国では、経済的な意味でも、
そうした動きが加速しているようです。

Workplaces ban not only smoking, but smokers themselves

By Wendy Koch, USA TODAY
Updated 1/6/2012 1:31 AM

Working and smoking
Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have laws that protect smokers' rights (in blue).



Source: American Lung Association

More job-seekers are facing an added requirement: no smoking — at work or anytime.

As bans on smoking sweep the USA, an increasing number of employers — primarily hospitals —
are also imposing bans on smokers. They won't hire applicants whose urine tests positive for nicotine
use, whether cigarettes, smokeless tobacco or even patches.

Such tobacco-free hiring policies, designed to promote health and reduce insurance premiums, took
effect this month at the Baylor Health Care System in Texas and will apply at the Hollywood Casino
in Toledo, Ohio, when it opens this year.

    STORY: Humana won't hire smokers in Arizona

"We have to walk the walk if we talk the talk," says Dave Fotsch of Idaho's Central District Health
Department, which voted last month to stop hiring smokers.

Each year, smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke causes 443,000 premature deaths and costs
the nation $193 billion in health bills and lost productivity,
according to the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. The CDC says 19.3% of U.S. adults smoked last year, down from 42.4% in 1965.
早期死亡の増加と生産性の低下

"We're trying to promote a complete culture of wellness," says Marcy Marshall of the Geisinger
Health System in Danville, Pa., which begins its nicotine-free hiring next month. "We're not denying
smokers their right to tobacco products. We're just choosing not to hire them."
我々は喫煙者がタバコを選ぶのは拒否しないが、我々は彼ら(喫煙者)を選ばないだけ

The policies stir outrage, even in the public health community.

"These policies represent employment discrimination. It's a very dangerous precedent," says
Michael Siegel, a professor at Boston University's School of Public Health. He says the restrictions
punish smokers rather than helping them quit.

"What's next? Are you not going to hire overly-caffeinated people?" asks Nate Shelman, a smoker
 and Boise's KBOI radio talk show host whose listeners debated the topic last month. "I'm tired of
 people seeing smokers as an easy piñata."

After several companies, including Alaska Airlines, adopted smoker-hiring bans a couple of
decades ago, the tobacco industry and the American Civil Liberties Union lobbied for smoker rights.
As a result, 29 states and the District of Columbia passed smoker-protection laws.
全米29州に「喫煙者保護法」がある・・・最初の地図参照

Some laws exempt non-profit groups and the health care industry, and 21 states have no rules
against nicotine-free hiring.

Federal laws allow nicotine-free hiring because they don't recognize smokers as a protected class,
says Chris Kuzynski with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

There's no data on how many U.S. businesses won't hire smokers, but the trend appears strongest
with hospitals, says Lewis Maltby, president of the National Workrights Institute, a non-profit offshoot
of the ACLU that opposes the hiring bans.

Many of the new policies expand on smoke-free workplace rules. At Bon Secours Virginia Health
System, more than 300 employees have kicked the habit since its campuses went smoke-free in 2009,
 and one applicant did so since it began nicotine-free hiring Nov. 30, says administrative director Kim Coleman.

The bottom line will benefit because health care costs for tobacco users are $3,000 to $4,000 more
each year than for non-smokers,
says Bon Secours' Cindy Stutts. "There's also an impact on productivity,"
 she says, because smokers take more breaks.
喫煙者のほうが、3~4千ドル年間に医療費がかかる。

Paul Billings of the American Lung Association says he's seen no data that prove nicotine-free hiring
gets people to quit. He says cessation programs are a better bet. Still, his group won't hire smokers:
 "We're non-smoking exemplars."


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