Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.


2011年01月22日(Sat) 14:05

Pediatrics. 2005 Dec;116(6):1516-28.

Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

Charlesworth A, Glantz SA.

Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, Institute for
Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco,
CA 94143-1390, USA.


OBJECTIVE: Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and
indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement,
tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents
a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of
smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others).


We performed a comprehensive literature review.


We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased
from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly.
In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950.
Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated
with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking
prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented
as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes
and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has
a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior.
Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces
youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake.
Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater
in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films,
significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking.
Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking
seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on
adolescent smoking.


Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking
in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending
the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R"
should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

PMID: 16322180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article